Readership: Research and Development in Academia and Industry, in particular Pharmaceutical Research, Public Health Professionals, Clinicians, Oncologists, Chemists, Pharmacologists, Biochemists, Molecular Biologists, Physiologists and all those with an the study of drug metabolism.
MOLECULAR DRUG METABOLISM AND TOXICOLOGY
The book begins by examining the genetic implications in the metabolism and toxicity of mycotoxins. Although some of the mycotoxins possess chemically reactive groups, which result in directly toxic properties without a requirement for metabolic activation, for a majority of mycotoxins it is becoming evident that metabolic activation in the exposed animal or human is an essential prerequisite to the development of an acute or chronic toxic response. The preventive effects of aspartame on the chronic toxic effects of ochratoxin A in vivo is also discussed.
Industrial chemicals polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were in commercial use in the United States of America and elsewhere for approximately 50 years. Although the U.S. sales and distribution of PCBs ended in the late 1970's, a significant portion of PCBs purchased by industry are still in use, mostly within capacitors and transformers. PCBs were not sold as individual chemicals (as individual isomers and congeners), but rather as complex mixtures containing scores of individual compounds. The composition of PCB mixtures is not static, but may be influenced by the biologic or chemical breakdown of individual components and these are extensively discussed in the book.
Tamoxifen and Toremifene and their influence on biotransformation and DNA reactivity is followed by comprehensive overviews on chemoprevention by phase 2 enzyme induction, the role of nitric oxide in cell injury, cell proliferation as a determining factor for the carcinogenicity of chemicals and the epidemics of poisoning by pesticides. Indeed pesticides are the largest collection of chemicals gathered under a single concept. It is estimated that about 1500 chemicals in thousands of pesticide formulations are marketed in the world. New strategies to control pests are evolving and this is leading to the concept of "integrated pest management" in order to prevent human and environmental damages.
The various studies addressing the role of maternal factors in determining the embryo's resistance to teratogens have mainly focused on disruptions in the embryo caused by maternal biochemical, morphological and physiological factors. The book examines the role of fetomaternal immune interactions in embryonic development, review the works dealing with immunomodulation of the embryo's sensitivity to extrinsic and intrinsic lethal and teratogenic stimuli, and discuss the possible mechanisms underlying this phenomenon.
Finally, Molecular Drug Metabolism and Toxicology turns its attention to molecular epidemiology, human risk monitoring, biomarkers, genetic susceptibility, implication of blood-brain interfaces in cerebral drug metabolism, drug metabolite disposition, and novel drug interactions at central nervous system (CNS)- dopamine receptors including its potential role in psychopathology and toxicity (Dopamine is a major neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and is involved in the regulation of a variety of functions including prolactin secretion, cognition, emotion, locomotion, and reward seeking behaviors associated with drugs of abuse. D2-like dopamine receptors are of particular interest as they are the principal targets of drugs used to treat schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease), and concludes with a comprehensive overview of current knowledge of the neuropathology and neuropsychopharmacology of drug-induced movement disorders.
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